Camel feeding

Zalam – Salt deficiency in camels

Zalam – The salt defeciency

In continuation of our discussion about the salt requirements and deficiency in camels; The salt deficiency in camels is called Zalam (cruelty) among the Pashtun and Balochi camel pastoralists. They consider this deficiency as a punishment and cruelty towards the camels. Salt is one of the important welfare issues of the camels. I interviewed many camel keepers in Balochistan and other parts of the country, the salt is one of the main requirements of the camels. They think the salt is the camel’s sword, fighting the challenging weather, thirst, and hunger. If you leave the camel without a weapon (salts) to fight against the long hotter days, and scarcity of feed and water, it is cruelty or Zalam.

Camel salt requirements per day

According to the camel keepers, the requirements of the salt are based on some factors like; age, stage (milking, working, pregnancy, etc), food, water, and season of the year. In most cases, the pastoralist has specified certain grazing land based on the salt bushes availability. They graze their camels once a week in the salt bushes inhibited grazing lands. Along with this, they offer salt of 500 g/mature camel in a week. If enough salt bushes are not available, then the requirements per week are double 1 kg/camel/week.

What type of salt should offer to the camels

The granular salt is the best suited for the camels as camel use their lips as prehensile organs. Camels are not like cows (lick) so the salt as a block is not good for camels; it can harm the camels’ teeth. Also, the powder form is not recommended as it gets moist during humid nights. The top priority should be grazing on salt bushes with an additional amount of 1 kg/week per camel.

Some images are provided in the article below by Maurizio Dioli

Debate and way forward

I always love to know the diversity of opinions about a phenomenon. I put some questions for further discussion and looking forward to hearing from different camelists of the world. Here are some questions;

  • Camel requirements of salts per day, what is the exact quantity required?
  • Do the camels drink brackish/salty water?
  • Do the camels drink seawater?
  • The impact of salts on physiological aspects of camel
  • Can we regulate the milk taste with the on-off camel salts
Camel Urine

Debate – Is camel urine worth a therapeutic value?

The camel4life international is a group of camelists (scientists, academics, farmers, activists, businessmen, student, farmers, etc) advocating camel aspects, especially the milk. We are a major think tank of the camelids’ world. Time to time we have serious and hot debates as the salts requirements and tolerance, camel milk and its therapeutic potential, camel role in ecosystem management, etc. But now we have rather very serious, hot and complicated issue, the CAMEL URINE.

Is Camel Urine has Therapeutic Value?

This debate triggered with a message from Christina Adams sharing the link of an article; “New report on camelid-derived nanobodies being used to attach to skeletal and heart tissue, with their small size as an advantage. This may be beneficial in anesthesia and maybe other drug delivery mechanisms. I’ve written about the camelid advantage before and have discussed it with a few scientists but it was such a niche even for them. So this proof of concept may help shift the dialogue and investigation forward. Let’s hope”.

Then Fatima Ramadan from Egypt responded as “This is excellent, there is research we are working on to extract nanoparticles from camel urine to treat cancer..on 🐀

Then in less than a minute, there were many responses, yes and no. Some were arguing the cultural, the other religious, and research value of the camel urine. The debate turned hot and hotter. In the ensuing bullet paragraphs, I’m sharing the responses;

  • Dr. Pierre from France; “In fact they dis not found anything….it is well known that antibodies of camlids look like Fab fragment with quite no constant part of igG. That make this antibodies very useful tools to target tumor marker when associates with chimiotherapic substances… It is not really nanoparticules but it IS classical to call them nanobodies. Normally, without pathology such antibodies do not pass the blood kidney barrier and have not to be present in urine in high concentrations”
  • Kehkashan Qureshi India; saudi Arabia Dr.khorshid fatan working on camel urine and Camel milk for treating cancer.there is a story i hv heard person suffering from intestinal cancer after surgery, again got intestinal cancer damaged the affected area but after following Camel milk n urine therapy he is fully recovered..but it must have’s still not recognised…
  • Ilse K.R from Rajasthan India; At Camel Charisma (, we get frequent requests for camel urine which we send out for free with milk orders. Mostly, they are from Muslim cancer patients, and there has been at least one spectacular recovery. Documentation will be out shortly
  • Maurizio Italy; Anecdotal evidence is not scientific evidence
  • Ilse reply; Anecdotal evidence eventually adds up. There is also scientific evidence of camel urine impacting cancer cell cultures. She shared this link;
  • Wanyama from Kenya; Quinine was once anecdotal
  • Maurizio again; Camel urine seems certainly a good way to get Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever .
  • Me; Many people believe camel urine is a therapy. The science has to prove. There are some findings and published. Dr Musab from Kuwait was once in group and tried to share his findings and opinion.
  • Dr. Afaf, PROF at UAEU; There might be something good in the urine at the same time, urine can be toxic and a source of contamination. Urine is a product of liver metabolism of feed components to make them more water-soluble. This way bioactivity can be increased. So, because urine is “dirty” such onservations should not be dismissed but further researched
  • Kehkashan Qureshi India; Yes definitely it is mentioned in Hadith.But it is one Of the treatment .not the only treatment for cancer. When you go through this statement there was some people who came to Madina and fell sick tried every option for the treatment but the environment of Madina not suited to them then we finally they tried camel milk and urine at certain doses for certain days till they fully recovered. Mostly whenever we heard stories they tried camel milk and urine only when there is no hope of treatment left so they here lot’s of factors matter.Maybe Arabian Camel is different by genetic or maybe they’re healthy camel.A scientist or researcher or an expert can better’explain…
  • Dr. Pierre-guy Marrint France; Ok ok please stop this discussion about urine effect mixing cases reports, religions belief and scientific observations. We have heard and red and undestood the different point of views. Urine is, as previously wrote by another coleague a way to purify organismes of toxines or too concentrated compounds. By evidence urine would have different composition according to food quality and quantity and water disponibility. And could also drain toxines, bacteria or viruses and have at least as much beneficial than dangerous effects. We need works, tempting to identifiate bioactive compounds but it is a no end work according to breeds, foods and water quality…. Thé only proof IS to isolate and qualify these compounds after testing on representative models… Do not forgot also the Amazing power of autosuggestion well known on placebo effects. Périple close to death could have spontaneous recovery only due to the Hope to have found the panacea…
  • Tumal, Gabarra camel community Kenya; I come from camel keeping Community- Gabbra. Milk/ blood are medicinal to our culture. I was camel milk fed up to age 15. I never heard in Gabbra History of camel Pastoralist taking “Urine” as medicine. It was in 1989, i a came across a visitor from town demanding camel Urine from expectant one, mixed it with milk & drunk. So let it be proved scientifically & it should be Indigenous Knowledge Practice+ Scientific= could be acceptable.

The topic is open for discussion

I wrote this post, composed of the debate. I invite you to take part in discussion. I wish we give our feedback and inputs. We should not go in personal hot argument but discuss with the scientific findings, traditional knowledge, cultural and religious philosophies. Please give your feedback in the comments box below.

World Camel Day 22 June

World Camel Day – How it started?

Camel and my Childhood

Since my childhood, I have been keenly looking at the camel herds of the Afghan Kuchis. They have been passing near our village in Northeastern Balochistan Pakistan. Whenever a salt seller camel to our village, smelling salts from the salt wells of Kakar Khurasan, the beast was always a camel. During my childhood, I was used to making camel toys with clay. As a curious kid, I always asked many many questions about the camel. So, my interest in camels started in my childhood.

Camel milk – Natural pharmacy for my sickness

A decade earlier severe arthritis (Rheumatoid Arthritis) almost killed me and I was unable to move from the bed. An old wise man advised me to move to a camel breeding area and take fresh camel milk regularly. I started my new life while obeying the advice and reached the Suleiman Mountainous Region of Balochistan (the camel heartland). I lived with the camel people, enjoyed their company, learned a lot about camels, and took camel milk regularly. I established a viewpoint that camel milk is a natural pharmacy not just white fluid milk. I recovered soon and started climbing the mountains, the joyful feeling of my life.

Ph.D. in Camel (2005-2009)

While compiling my Ph.D. work, and reading piles of books and articles about the camels and camel-related aspects, I realized that there must be someday, mentioning and realizing the importance of the incredible camel.

The Conception of World Camel Day – First world camel day 2009

In 2009, I conceptualized the idea of a world camel day (WCD) to aware people of the importance of camel as a food security agent in climate change scenarios. From 2009 to 2012, WCD was celebrated only in the province of Balochistan (the important habitat of camels, 50% share of Pakistan’s 1 million population of camels). Slowly and gradually, we earned support at the country as well as global level.

Why do we choose the date of 22nd June?

In its original habitat, 21 June is the longest and hottest day of the year, in the northern hemisphere of the globe. Camel sustains its abilities of production in such harsh and hostile environments and adapts to the soaring heat and long thirsty days. We should have chosen the 21st of June as world camel day but it is specified for the world father day. So, we decided to skip 21 and selected 22nd June as the world camel day. The difference in day length is only 2 seconds between the 21st and 22nd of June. For further reading about the history of the world camel day, please go to the link below.

International colleagues’ support

Here, I must praise the role of the very important camel colleagues like Ilse Kohler Rollefson, Prof. Dr. Yagil (the late), Dr. Abdul Salam Abax (KSA), and many other colleagues. It is very hard to mention the names of all the people who supported me in this noble cause.

Recent development

In recent years, we have gained much development, there is an increasing awareness about the camel and the world camel day is celebrated in many quarters of the world. Last year (2021) there was a Twitter trend ‘worldcamelday‘. With the support of the International Camel Organization, an international seminar was held with the collaboration of UNESCO which was live-streamed on Twitter, Youtube, and other media outlets.

CaM yogurt Camel milk products

Believe it or not: Typical yogurt made from 100% camel’s milk

Camel’s milk (CaM) has a similar composition to that of bovine milk and sequence homology between milk proteins for both kinds of milk is in the range of 60–90%. The relative composition, distribution, and molecular profile of milk constituents are different. In fact, β-lactoglobulin (potential allergen for infants), whey proteins, is absent in CaM. Due to its higher amounts of Beta-casein (β-CN), CAM is similar to human milk and also has better digestibility and lower infants’ allergic incidence, compared to bovine milk. In fact, β-CN is more degradable by peptic enzymes than α-CN

The power of camel milk

It is well documented that CaM is technically more difficult to process into fermented products (such as yogurt) than its counterparts from other livestock. In this regard, appreciable research works have been dealt with many trials in making yogurt from CaM. The manufacturing of yogurt from CaM, however, ended in a texture problem where the final product was not a typical yogurt texture and had an unpleasant taste. Furthermore, the product’s viscosity did not change during the gelling process compared to the milk of other dairy species. In other words, the final product is described at best as a drinking yogurt. In fact, such technical difficulties clearly explain the lack of industrial production of CaM yogurt at the present time.

Beauty of the camels
The Beauty of the camels

Recently, yogurt could not be made from CaM unless the dromedary milk samples were fortified with combinations of cow’s milk constituents (micellar casein, whey protein, and sodium caseinate) in the presence of microbial transglutaminase. Others added commercial chymosin along with gelatin, starch, and skim milk powder. However, the final product deviated from standards of identity for yogurt traditionally made by acidification (no cheese coagulant) by selected lactic acid bacterial starters.  Instead, the resulted CaM fermented product could be best described as a yogurt-like one.

One of the world’s best camel breeds – KHAWAR Camel of Oman. The main habitat is the Dhofar region.

It is noteworthy to mention that our developed CaM yogurt could be manufactured, at the industrial scale, as that from cow’s milk will not add up extra costs in its production. CaM yogurt was made from 100% CaM (pasteurized) with no need for fortification with caseins, skim milk powder, whey proteins, or treatment with commercial enzymes (chymosin/ transglutaminase) or gelatin.

Raigi camel breed of Kakar Khurasan

Most important, the developed CaM yogurt meets the standard of identity outlined by the Codex Alimentarius of the FAO/WHO for yogurt. It is also an added-value product from CaM with more nutritious and functional values. The CaM yogurt, developed in our laboratory, could be considered a safer alternative for those allergic to cow’s milk. It is typical yogurt made from CaM which is spoonable (see photo below) with longer shelf life without added preservatives. If you are interested in the industrial production and marketing of CAM yogurt, please contact me at the below e-mail address.

Finally, I would like to thank Dr. ABDUL RAZIQ Kakar for giving me this opportunity in posting my article in CAMEL4All.

Prof. N. Al-zoreky

King Faisal University

Saudi (

Camel Milk and Natural Health Camel Milk for Health

My Hypothesis proved correct – CaM is potential functional food for diabetes control

I always claimed of the functional characters of camel milk

Though I did not conduct large-scale trials. I did many interviews, communicated with the camel keepers, having been with the camels for the last 20 years, regular consumer of camel milk, and interviewed camel milk consumers made my hypothesis more and stronger that camel milk is a potential therapy for the complexity of diabetes and other issues but here I would focus on diabetes. I practically conducted small level family and friends trials with the camel milk and was always convinced of the magical power of this superfood.

A meta-analysis of many studies concluded ‘CaM is effective’

To conclude, CM could be used as effective adjuvant therapy for patients with both types of diabetes, effectively reducing the short-term and long-term hyperglycemia parameters, i.e., fasting blood glucose and HbA1c, respectively. Owing to the bioactive peptide and hormone-like proteins involved in CM, the insulin dose required for patients with diabetes could be reduced by the regular long-duration administration of CM. Long-term, more controlled clinical trials are warranted to overcome the raised limitations presented in the high heterogeneity of the analyzed articles and to provide evidence of a more robust conclusive effect on the impact of CM intake of patients with diabetes. For further details, one can read the article in detail.

CaM Product and Cheese

It is now easy to make yogurt from camel milk

Making yogurt from camel milk was always challenging

It was always challenging making yogurt of camel milk. The people from the different parts of the world were continuously asking such questions, why it is challenging to make yogurt of camel milk? My answer was always the same ‘better take the camel milk as fresh and unprocessed’ I take fresh camel milk on daily basis and it is practically keeping me away from chemical drugs and doctors. In different time periods and in different parts of the world, somehow it was managed to make yogurt of camel milk but always a bit thinner and watery.

What does the new study find?

Study was led by Selda, a member of Camel4life International

A new study conducted in Turkey found an enzyme (biological agent), that makes better yogurt with camel milk. The study was published with the title ‘The influence of microbial transglutaminase on the camel milk yogurt’ I received this good news in the group communication hub of the Camel4life international group which is advocating camel milk at the global level. The study revealed that the sample (yogurt) with the best sensory properties was prepared with 6 U/g microbial transglutaminases (mTGase) and micellar casein. The study concluded that the mTGase improved the gel structure and sensory properties of camel milk yogurt. For your interest and further details, I’m hereby sharing the link to the study.

In 2020, I made CM yogurt at home

Making yogurt from camel milk is a challenge and so is the separation of butterfat. After a lengthy effort and trying different modules, ultimately we succeeded to make yogurt, separated butter, got whey (Shlombey, شلومبئ). During this work, I successfully separated/produced butter from the came milk. The link is available here.

Camel Farm & Milk Production Ecological camel farming

A desert environment at farm for the camels

We have the world’s lucky camels

We provide the desert environment to our camels at the farm. Our camels’ houses are as clean as the desert to provide a comfortable environment for the milking camels and harvest quality milk. We provide a neat and clean environment for our camels. We replace old sand with a fresh one. We clean/filter the bedding sand every day with the beach cleaning machine. The machine filter the sand, collect the manure balls and keep the house very clean. We provide very spacy housing to our camels, so they remain relaxed and happy to provide healthy milk. Their calves/good remain with their moms for the whole milking period. We weaned the calves at the age of 8 months. We provide full opportunity to the calves to stay with their moms and enjoy moms’ company and love.

Cleaning the camel houses with the beach cleaning machine in Alain UAE

1st ICO International Forum of Camel Research Centers

A webinar with the title as; 1st ICO International Forum of Camel Research Centers was held on 27th January 2022 in the King Faisal University Riyadh with the collaboration of the International Camel Organization (ICO)

Recommendations of the Webinar

  1. Revegetate the deserts using recent technologies to provide a raring area for Camels
  2. Document the available knowledge about Camels and translate it to multi-languages
  3. Support camel breeders/owners to produce efficient milk and meat for sustainable food security
  4. Innovating new products from camel and marketing it internationally based on scientific research
  5. ncourage researchers/postgraduate students to perform scientific research in camel sciences
  6. Support research related to the genetic improvement of camels
  7. Support research related to the development of artificial insemination in camels
  8. Support research related to molecular diagnostic of camel disease
  9. Encourage the public and private sectors to produce medicines and vaccines for camel diseases
  10. Create standard feeding/nutrition programs based on Camel breed/purpose with consideration of age, weight, and other physical factors
  11. Recruiting and training human resources working in sectors related to camel welfare
  12. Full support (financially and others) to the infrastructure, running/operating costs, and research of research institutes concerning Camels. Especially/Priority the Camel Research Institutes
  13. Hold an annual international meeting of Camel Research Centers and faculties of veterinary sciences
  14. Participating countries become members of the International Center for Camel Research in the ICO
  15. Launch an annual award for the best research centre
  16. Establish a periodic scientific journal on cultural and scientific camel sciences
  17. Establish international camel expertise and scientists’ platform to exchange experience and knowledge about the camel

In December 2021, the first camel conference under the patronage of ICO was also held in Rimah – Riyadh KSA, the recommendations were shared with you. You can reach the recommendations with the link below. You can reach the photostory of the conference here;

The recommendations and other relevant material can be found in the links below.

Camel and Nature Connection Camel Confeernce

Recommendations for the first King Abdul Aziz camel conference -Riyadh Kingdome of Saudi Arabia

Recommendations and further steps need to be taken – My personal recomendations

My conclusive remarks at the end of my talk as a first speaker of the conference.

  • Declaring the camel milk as a heritage food: The governments should buy (camel milk) with subsidized rates and can provide to the schools children (heritage/slow food), hospitals (natural health), and police/army personal (stronger security). The countries like Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, and other gulf states can easily support such initiatives
  • Channellisation (milk) through cameleers cooperatives: The milk of the camel can assure an additional income for a sustainable camel production. This way the camel milk business will not go in the hands of few giant companies but with the cameleers (the major share).
  • Giving a chance to the female cameleers: The female needs to give a chance in the camel milk business. I have a very scientific module for involving females in camel dairying to enhance their income, promote family wellness and the health of mother and kids
  • Utmost need to support the camel keeper: The camel farmers/beduins need support as they are facing climate change catastrophe, revegetation of the deserts with the help of new technologies can provide feeding opportunities to the camels in future, the native flora revegetation will work as two prong solution – food for livestock and provision shelter to the wildlife
  • The camel helps the drylands: The desert is a living phenomenon and its life is strongle connected with the grazing practice (conversion of woody vegetation into manure), especially the camels. The desert without camels will loose its fertility and the carbon (sunk in rangelands) will be release into the atmosphere which is an irreversable loss to the environment 
  • Formation of a multistakeholders platefarm: ICO can take more active part in coordinating of the multistakeholders platform on camel production, milk, meat etc
  • A conference on camel – once in 2 years: I recomend International Camel Organization (ICO) to arrange a conference (one in 2 years) and ensure the participation of the international camel scientists, production professionals, representatives of the camels organization (from Asia and Africa) to ensure a consistant camel policy at global level
  • Camel mapping as a pilot project – start from KSA and manipulate in other parts of the world. This will help in a wide primary data about the camels, size of herd, male:female, herd composition, milk production, consumption of camel products, prospects of camel keepers etc
  • Knowledge management, we have information about the camels but knowledge is very sporadic. Documentation of the available traditional knowledge with the support of universities as well as translation of the camel science in Arabic will be a great step
Receiving shield from Dr. Mubarak Alsuelem
Ecological camel farming

Ecological Camel Farming – Supporting Aravana Camel Breeders in Turkmen Region of Iran

Reported by my friend Kianzad from Camel Center Iran

The native flora, especially the resilient bush verities are re-cultivated and protected to provide healthy and sufficient feed resources to the precious camel breed Aravana in Turkemen region of the country. Here is a brief example of the Salsola bush.

Salsola or Saltwart bush is highly adapted to the native ecosystem and is highly liked by the camels. In native language (Turkmen), the camel breeders call it the ‘sparrow Eye’. Being rich in nutrients, this bush has very good effect on milk, i.e. viscosity of milk based on fat & protein contents. The Turkmen camel breeders in Gonbad district (centre of Turkmen area, Iran ) use it as main part of camel ration.The region is home to the precious camel breed ‘ARAVANA’ which is a promising dairy type.

Torkumani camel breeders, raising in Gonbad and Gorlestan province in North East of Iran and the adjoining regions of Turkmenistan are herding the Aravana breed. This camel is widely used by the Turkmen nomadic people of the region. Aravana breed is specialized milk breed with short age at first calving and shorter calving interval compared to other breeds. The nomads make the specialized sour milk of this breed, called as CHAL.

Aravana camel breed of Turkmen camel keepers have diversities in types. Here are some pictures.

Ministry of jihad agriculture support the cultivation and extension of the native but resilient plants which are highly liked by the camels. The ministry with the collaboration of rangeland, watershed management, and deputy of agronomy and land grant management organization has launched a unique project of its kind ‘ECOLOGICAL CAMEL FARMING. In this plan, they are using very extensive land (with salt contents) which is unable for arable farming. In the project they used mechanization for cultivation and protection with some level of irrigation to support the early growing of the halophyte bushes like Salsola and Alhagi camelarum which is also known as camel thorn. I shall share some pictures provided by Kianzad.


The best method is the ecological farming ‘farming with zero harm to the nature’. This is the only way for a safe and zero emission farming system, especially for the camels with the native flora. Both the camels and the native bushes have the highest tolerance level and very adapted to the harsh and hostile ecosystems. Under the guidance of the COP26, we have to go for the adaptation and rely on the genetic resources which are highly resilient and sustainable with very low input system.

Camel Milk for Health General about camel

Do the Age, Parity, and type of Milking Affect the Camel Udder?

Practically, I have been working with the milking camels for the last 15 years almost, from research work to commercial camel dairying. I have a very strong and concrete experience that age and parity (number of calving/s) have a very negative impact on the camel udder. The advancement in age, total hours of milking (time of milking), and the number of parities resulting in the loosening of the ligaments of the udder, enlargement of the teats’ orifices, and elongating of the teats. All the above-mentioned conditions result in vulnerability to mastitis. I shall share some pictures, mostly shot of the udders of highly harvested/milked camels.

A Recent Study with Contrast Results from Iraq

I reviewed some studies about the camels’ mastitis recently (though not fresh studies) from Africa and now Iraq which revealed that the age, parity, and the number of milking has no impact on camels’ udder health. I will certainly not agree with such findings.

I noticed that in the studies publish with such results, the number of camels was less than 20 which is a very small sample. I’m sure if there will be a huge data with many camels and for many years, the results will be different.

Camel Conference The Camel and Climate Change World Camel Day 22 June



S e p t 3 0 t h – O c t I s t , 2 0 2 1

A World Camel Day Series

Climate change is a bitter reality and the globe is facing the consequences of this phenomenon. It is imperative to strive for food security in this scenario. The camel is an amazing species along with extraordinary resilience in changing environments.  There is a  need to explore and share the potential and future of this creature under climate change circumstances.  The Department of Livestock Production and Management is taking one step forward to organize the International Camel Conference (Virtual) in collaboration with Camel Association of Pakistan to take advantage of exploring the potential of this creature through cooperation, hard work, research & development to open new doors in the multi-value research aspect.  We welcome the dignitaries,    researchers,    and scholars to this event.


  • Prof. (R) Dr. Muhammad Younas, Ex Dean FAH, Founding President, Camel Association of Pakistan (CAP)
  • Prof. Dr. Zafar Iqbal Qureshi, Deptt. of Theriogenology, Uni. of Agriculture, Faisalabad.
  • Nisar Ahmad Wani, Scientific Director Reproductive Biotechnology Centre, Nad Al Sheba, Dubai
  • Dr Abdul Raziq Kakar, Technical Operations Manager, Al-Ain Farms, Abu Dhabi, International. Camel Dairying Specialist & Consultant
  • Prof. Dr Taherah Mohammadabadi, Agricultural Sciences, and Natural Resources, University of Khuzestan, Iran
  • Prof. Dr. Tarun Kumar Gahlot, Rajasthan Agri. Uni., Bikaner, India. Editor: J. Camel Practice and researcher.
  • Pauline Gitonga, Dryland Animal Health Consultant, ASAL Extension Ltd. Kenya
  • Mr. Douglas Baum, Owner at The US Army Camel Experiment
  • Mr. Jama Warsame, Founder of White Gold Camel Milk Co., Kenya
  • Dr. Asim Faraz, General Secretary CAP Assistant Prof., Bahauddin Zakariya Uni., Multan

World Camel Day, 22nd June

June; the harshest month of summer with the longest and hottest days of the year (21 June) in the northern hemisphere, the cradle of camel (old world) domestication. The world is celebrating WCD since 2009 to aware the public and policymakers of the incredible role of the camel.

Abstracts Are Still Accepted

  • Short abstract (200-250 words)
  • Extended abstracts (2000-2500) words.
  • Registration: 14th August 2021
  • Abstract submission deadline: 22th Sept. 2021
  • Accepted Abstract Notification: 25th Sept. 2021
  • Talk submission deadline: 27th Sept. 2021

For more Information and Registration; please go to the link for registration.

Camel and Nature Connection Camel in European Countries

Camel can be a Hope for the Regions under Sever Climate Change Calamities

Camel is one of the best animal models adapted to the harshest climatic conditions of the earth. Camel is engineered with super genes, evolved in tune with the climate change in the hundreds of years evolution history.

Seeing the tragic scenes on TV about the wildfires and the soaring heat in the regions not used to such challenges, the scientists are now thinking of adaptation strategies as the mitigation is complicated, expensive, and unsustainable.

As an animal scientist, working with the camels for the last 20 years, I’m very confident to say that one of the best adaptation strategies would be giving the camel a chance to perform as a food security animal. Though it is not easy and simple it is a reliable and sustainable model to ensure food security under the climate change challenge. Camel can be introduced in the forests (organic nutrients) which can consume the roughages which are otherwise causing hazardous fires. Camel and other animals especially goats can cut the link between the plants on the ground and the shoots of the trees, hence minimizing the risk of wildfires.

Camel with the ability to produce milk and meat in a very low or zero input system can provide amazing food ingredients, especially milk which is attracting thousands of new consumers because of its health-friendly nature. Camel milk is not only good food but helps in health challenges, especially the challenges which are posed because of lifestyle like diabetes.

I have been writing on the camelization of the camels in the new habitats which are different and far away from their original habitats of Asia and Africa. The new habitats like Australia, part of the USA, and Europe are the new habitats and the people over there are witnessed the miraculous attributes of camels under the challenges of climate change. Also, many reports are circulating about the health admiring role of the camel milk as we can read on the very active group wall posts on Facebook with the name of ‘HEALING WITH THE CAMEL MILK’

European scientists are convinced with the attributes of the camel and the renowned camel scientist Dr. bernard Faye is leading a camel milk project with the name of CAMELMILK (PRIMA project n° 1832) to materialize camel milk availability at the European level. There are very promising results coming out of the project. I can see the beautiful pictures of the milking camels and the cheese-making out of the camel milk.

In Europe, the camels are mainly housed in 3 countries, i.e. Germany, France, and Spain. Clearer information is only available for the Canary Island with at least 1,300 camels (the data is a bit controversial and maybe more than these figures). The average per camel milk yield (3 to 4 kg/day) is lower than in Africa, Arabia, and Central and South Asia. The prices of camel milk range from 8 to 10 Euro per kg camel milk. People are taking interest in camel milk and the consumers are increasing with a speedy incline curve. The main reasons for the camel milk likeness in Europe are;

  • People with allergies prefer camel milk as the camel milk is free of cow allergy proteins and intolerant lactose.
  • The health conscious people, especially the new generation
  • The people looking for the pharmacological affects of the camel milk and consider camel milk as natural pharmacy
  • The people who prioritize environment friendly production system

Challenges and the Way Forward

One of the most important challenges for the camel keepers in the new habitats is the lower yield of milk. The ancestors of those camels were imported into the regions for work. They are massive animals and comparatively low yielders in milk. In some regions, especially Europe they are somehow crossbred with the Bactrian camels which are very low yielder but producing thicker milk than the Arabian camels.

It will be a wise suggestion to make a camel dairy consortium at a global level with the support of the relevant countries’ governments to centralize the best camel genes for more and sustainable milk production. It is a bit tricky but not impossible. This will be a milestone in the journey of the camel dairying which will put longer impacts on the food systems and environments in the regions.

camel milk Camel Milk for Health

CaM-Immune Works Better than Normal Camel Milk- A Claim by Millie Hinkle

Cam-Immune shown extremely positive results on Cancer Patient

Research with cancer patients and Cam-Immune shown extremely positive results. Gave Cam-Immune immediately before chemo therapy treatment and again immediately after treatment. The high levels of antioxidants, antibodies, the Cam-Immune seems to act as a carrying agent for the chemotherapy directly to the tumor without any of the negative side effects normally experienced by patients. Shrinkage of tumors observed in radiological tests. Seeking camels and funding for further studies here in US.

Also very Positive Impact on the Autistic Kids

Observation of autistic children showed rapid response compared to just regular camel milk. Autistic children on Cam-Immune had improvement in eye contact,verbal response, cognitive measurement response and motor skill improvement within a shorter period of time than children on regular camel milk.

The best and acceptable way would be a comprehensive study with highly scientific methodology/ies in different ecological regions of the world, where a team of scientist with the diverse background is involved.

Dr. Raziq Kakar
camel milk Camel Milk for Health

Cam-Immune Can Help in Keeping the Infections at Bay

A Claim by Dr. Millie Hinkle, USA

I am astounded at how fast the variants of Covid are spreading. I have patients who have had Covid last year and both vaccines this year and now they are very ill with the delta variant. I am so sad because I have tried to get government funding to develop Cam-Immune.

What is CaM? it is the abbreviation of camel milk

Cam- Immune Have Proven to Support the Immune System

Cam-Immune can be taken by mouth but I am also able to develop it into a nasal spray. The high levels of antioxidants, antibodies, etc in Cam- Immune have proven to support the immune system against the Covid variants.

Natural Feed Formula

My all natural formula that I feed the camel increases specific enzymes that fight against Covid. The virus cannot replicate. But also one of the most amazing facts is that the camel themselves are protected against Covid, Sars and Mers. I desperately want to help everyone around the world as well as the camel with my Cam-Immune but simply cannot go forward without funding to mass produce this not as a drug but as a nutraceutical. This is good because it does not have to be on a wait list by the FDA. It is a therapeutic approach to Covid and the variants.

Why we not give a chance to natural formula, easy applicable and no side effects and no hesitation from the people.

Dr. Raziq Kakar
camel milk Natural Health and Camel Milk

A Claim; 100% Natural Feed for Camels

Dr. Millie Hinkle Claim That

I have a 100% natural formula that I feed the camel. Within 4 weeks the antibodies, immunoglobulins and antioxidants doubled. This created a Super Milk and this milk is called Cam-Immune.

Is it Really Improves Camel Health?

The other amazing fact about the special formula I fed the camel is that the camels health drastically improved. The camel in the study were 9-10 year old camel. After consuming my special formula their serum showed the health of only a year old camel. The formula that I feed the camel has also proven to prevent the replication of SARS, MERS,.and Covid 19 viruses in the camel. Dairies around d the world are concerned about theses viruses with their camel. No camel on my formula has gotten any of these viruses.

Camel is natural reservoir/host of many microorganisms, especially viruses and camel doesn’t need any external formula retard replications of viruses or boost camel immunity as camel is naturally immune.

Dr. Raziq Kakar

Camel milk is naturally superior and unique because of the camels’ genetics as camel is adapted to the challenging conditions of health like infections and extreme environments like aridity and hot weathers.


A Claim; 100% Natural Feed for Camels

Camel milk in nature
Camel Farm & Milk Production Kazakhstan Camel

An Amazing Camel & Mare Milk Story from Kazakhstan

Camel Milk Story from Almaty Kazakhstan

This troy was reported in a Russian-language newspaper and shared by my friend Dr. Moldir Nurseitova. The link of the story is provided at the end of the article.

Otemis Makan is a camel and horse farmer in the Steepe of Kazakhstan, close to Almaty city. He is farming 225 camels and the same amount of horses and the main driver of his farming is the milk and its value-added products Shubat and Khamis from camel and horse milk respectively. The camels and horses are free-roaming, enjoying nature and eating the flora they like the most. Nature enriches and fortifies their milk and makes it a solution of supermolecules, therefore camel milk is considered a natural pharmacy. Not only the milk but also the urine from such happy camels is considered as a healing agent and functional food.

Otemis Makan with his beautiful Aravana/Aruvana camels

Each Camel has Her Own Name

He loves camels the most and has given names to each milking camel and the calves know the names of their mothers. The calves are kept and reared separately and when the mothers are brought into the milking pen each calf is called by its mother name and the calves really understand their names and run into the milking parlor. One camel’s name is Aisha. The calf starts suckling mama camel and the milk letdown starts and the milking is started. Now the farmer milk the camel and the calf suckle one teat, it is a very natural and friendly way of milk, only the nature oxytocin is induced. Nice husbandry like this further enriches the quality of super camel milk.

Hand milking of the camel, the calf is suckling and preparing the camel for milk letdown.

Fermented Camel Milk (Shubat)

Shubat is centuries old and the firsthand fermentation method of Central Asia nomads to preserve and enrich the milk. The camel milk Shubat is safe and usable for 3 days without cooling/refrigeration. Shubat is the very traditional dairy cosine of Kazakhstan. It is not only considered as food but a very strong healing agent.

Milking the single-humped beautiful Aravana camel

Camel Urine

According to the farmer, there is an increasing demand for camel urine and some people believe that it can heal very complicated health issues if a 5th quarter is added to 4 parts of the camel milk. The demand for urine is there and many people’s feedback is very positive. Me the author personally, I never recommend drinking camel urine.

Collecting urine from the camel.

The camel and horse farming story is very interesting and appealing. Once you started reading, you can’t stop without completing reading all story. I would recommend reading the whole story in the link provided below.

The Camel Science

Camel Science is Attracting Scientists by 3 Reasons

Many Things in Camels are Attractive

There are many reasons why the new scientists are being attracted by the camel but we can summarize 3 main reasons behind the attraction of camel for scientists.

  1. The camel is a fantastic biological model for biologists working on basic sciences as immunology (unique structure of immunoglobulines), hematology (remarkable behaviour of blood in case of dehydration or effort), proteomic (presence of specific proteins in camel milk), physiology (mechanisms of adaptation to desert climate or low nutritive resource), pharmacology (specificity of pharmacodynamic) or genomic (gene signing the adaptation to environment).
  2. The camel is able to produce milk, meat, wool, leather, energy, etc in desertic conditions as multipurpose animal, i.e., he is able to ensure a zootechnical production in arid conditions more efficiently than other domestic species. In that purpose some applied research are on-going as new features in camel milk processing, impact of intensification on camel production, the use of biotechnologies of reproduction, specialized camel farm management (racing camel, dairy farm, feed-lot), disease control and ecopathological approach.
  3. The camel is an element of desert ecosystem including climatic change, globalization of the economy, change in production systems and pastoralism’ practices. Some studies regarding the role of camel in the desertification combat, the added-value of camel in desert productivity, the ecosystemic services of camel farming, the valorization of camel products all along the commodity channels, etc.
Camel stories World Camel Day 22 June

Are the Camels Conquering the World?

By B. Faye

A camel story by Dr. Bernard Faye from France. Dr. Faye is a very experienced and knowledgeable person in camel’s world. He is the founding member and the chairman of the International Society of Camelids Development and Research (ISOCARD).

The story about the camel future – Animal of future

In continuation of the series of camel stories from different regions of the world

Camel Beyond Their Cradle of Domestication

From their places of domestication 5000 years ago, dromedary and Bactrian camels moved far away from their cradle (origin of domestication). Two main parameters can explain this camel stock moving: The aridification of the Sahara starting just before the Christian Era. The trade routes in Asia from China to the Mediterranean coast (Silk Road) and across Sahara from the Maghreb to the Sahel, using camels’ caravans.

Dr. Bernard Faye

FAO Statistics and the Camels

The world statistics (site FAOstat) available since 1961 only, show a regular increase of the camel population (approximatively 3%/year), but with different demography patterns.

Global Demographic Trends in Camels

Globally, we can distinguish a Trend as

  1. Countries with a decline of the camel population, but except in India, this decline was stopped since the years 2000’s for example in China, Turkey, and Middle-east (5 % of the total camel population) (5 % of the total camel population)
  2. Countries with a regular growth of their population (North and Horn of Africa, Pakistan, and Central Asia) (50 % of the total camel population)
  3. Countries with important increase after slight decline which concern Syria and Bahrein only (1.5 % of the total camel population)
  4. Countries with sudden increase after a long regular growth (Sahel countries and Arabian Peninsula) ( 43.5 % of the total camel population)

New implantations are also observable

After importing some camels in Australia in the XIXth century, a large camel population is nowadays present in this country. Camels were also imported in arid countries of Southern Africa (Namibia, Botswana). But a recent keen interest can be observed in Western countries (USE, Europe), mainly for touristic attraction, but more and more for milk production.

Globally, it is expected that climatic changes are giving a chance for camels to take more place in the future world.

Dr. Faye
Camel in European Countries World Camel Day 22 June

The History of Camel Introduction in Europe

A series of camel stories from different regions of the world

The camel, most closely associated with desert climates, actually has unique connections to Europe. The Romans made the first introductions of Arabian (one hump) camels, likely for menageries, but archaeological evidence also supports their use as working animals in Belgium during the Roman period.

Some very old references are available about the camels in early medieval Europe. The Visigoths and other tribes may have brought them into Western Europe. In France, the Merovingian King Clotaire paraded his Queen Brunehaut on a camel before having her executed. The Arabs and Berbers in the early eighth century brought camels with them, but camel herding never really flourished in those regions. The Hohenstaufen king Redrick made use of camels in Sicily and southern Italy.

There were several attempts to introduce camels into Europe in the early modern period. Around 1623 a small herd of camels owned by King James used to graze daily in St James’s Park. Philip of Spain maintained a small zoo in the gardens of his palace at Aranjuez with 4 camels, which he had brought over in the 1570s from Africa. They proved useful in building work, so more were bred until there were about 40. Ferdinand de Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, introduced imported camels in 1622 to be used a pack animals. The last of the herd lingered in the environs of Pisa until the second World War when soldiers killed the remnant for meat.

In 19th century Spain there were feral camels in the swamps of the Guadalquivir Delta. Allegedly they had been left there by the British army in the Peninsular War. Alternatively and less romantically, they had originally been imported into the province of Cadiz in 1829to work on road-building and other projects. There were other short-lived attempts to introduce camels in Spain, Poland, and elsewhere.


Camel (book) by Robert Irwin