Bactrian Camel and Bactria Camel in China and Mongolia

Mongolian Bactrian camel -Breeding, Milk Production, and Lactation Curve

Visit of Mongolian Bactrian camels and their Ecosystem

In April 2018, the author visited Mongolia, especially the Gobi desert to visit the Bactrian camel herders and explore the potential of camels in their unique ecosystem. The details of the survey report can be read at the link.
Interviewed by the national TV of Mongolia

Types of camel

There are 3 types of Bactrian camels in the region, i.e.

  1. Galba Gobiin Ulaan (Reddish-colored camel)
  2. Khaniin Khestiin Khuren (Brown colored camel)
  3. Thukhum MTungologiin kKhos Zogdott Khuren (double line neck hair)
Beautiful Bactrian Calf

Breeding Season

The breeding season starts in October and reached its peak in December and slowly declines and ceases in April. Usually, one Bull is enough for up to 70 she-camels. The details of the production traits are given in the table below.

Table: The Production Traits of the Bactrian camel in the region

MonthsConception Rate (%)Calving %ageAvg. Milk (kg)
Breeding season, Percentile of fertility, and milk production

The milk production potential and the lactation curve

Though the Bactrian milk production potential is lower (1-3 liter/day) compared to the Arabian camel (5-15 liter/day), the Bactrian milk is thicker (up to 14% total solids) and full of energy to give special strength to the calf to survive in challenging cold environment. The average milk production based on my survey is 640 ml/day (< 1 kg/day) with a lactation yield of 233 kg. The lactation here is calculated on the annual basis but in actuality, the camel produces for up to 8 months, producing 185 liters in 250 days. Here milk production means the milk which was harvested by the milker keeping in view the calf requirements.

Bactrian camel milk composition

No.ComponentAvg. %Highest level
5Total Solid1214
Milk composition derived from scientific literature for Bactrian

Physical-chemical characterizations of Mongolian Bactrian camel milk

Components %Bactrian (BCaM)Arabian (ACaM)
Specific gravity1.0141.017
pH Values6.436.77
Total Solids14.2312.74
Comparative composition reported from Mongolia by GansaiKhan et al 2011

Some Important Notes about the Bactrian camel Milk

  • The BCaM has higher contents of long chain (polyunsaturated) fatty acids (Mostly C18:1), safe for our heart and circulation system.
  • The BCaM has higher contents of Vit. A and Vit. C, providing additional vitality and survivability to cell life and health.
  • BCaM is rich with Immunoglobulin (considered as supper immune bullets) enabling our health to resist all types of infectious microbiomes.
  • The above facts are equally true for Arabian camel milk (ACaM).

Camel Milk Products

The nomads use camel milk as fresh directly. The surplus is converted into a fermented product (Hormook). The Hormook is used very widely and some products are available in the market in Ulaanbaatar. For further details about Bactrian milk, you can go to the link Detailed Nutritional Composition of Bactrian Camel’s Milk


The surplus Harmok is converted into CM Vodka and the residues are used to make Curt. Curt and Vodka are offered to the guests as a unique product of the Gobi.

The Attachment of Nomads with camel

The nomads love their camel very much. They call it Themeh in the Mongolian language. They use camels for milk, riding/racing, festivals, wool, and also for meat (in rare cases).

World Camel Day 22 June

World Camel Day (WCD) Session on 24 tv Channel Riyadh Saudi Arabia

World Camel Day (WCD) Session on 24 tv Channel Riyadh Saudi Arabia

The session was directly covered by the 24 sport channel of Saudi Arabia. It was a 1 hour live seminar about the world camel day. Abu Muhammad Bin Oudah (camel farmer from KSA), Dr. Suleiman, Dr. Mubarak Swelem, Dr. Abdul RAZIQ Kakar (the founder of the world camel day) participated in the conference. 

Bin Oudah spoke about the present status and future prospects of the camel in Saudi Arabia. He emphasized on the role of camel in Saudi culture and business. He was quite optimistic with the future of the camel in Saudi Arabia and the world. He suggested to be get ready well in time for the year of camelids in 2024.

Founder of the World Camel Day with a beautiful happy camel in Fujairah UAE

Camel is the Animal of Future

Future of the camel is very bright because it is highly adapted to the harsh climate conditions. It can sustain milk production (where temperature reaches to 52C) in conditions where the other type of livestock can hardly survive. The camels eat the food mainly based on woody material which has otherwise no use except burning for fuel. The camel convert such wood material into valuable food for human (milk, meat) and detritivores (manure). Adaptation is the real worth of camel and the utmost need of the human being. We need livestock for our food security to be convenient in harsh weather and doesn’t need much inputs like more water, cooling, biosafety, specialized food etc. 

Kharani camel in Chaghai Kharan Region of Balochistan Pakistan

2024 is the year of Camelids, specified by the UNFAO. I wish the policymakers and scientist recognize and appreciate the camel as the highly adapted livestock ensuring food security and managing the fragile ecosystem under the climate change scenario. 

Dr. Muhammad Suleiman detailed out the issues, problems and challenges of the camels in Saudi Arabia. He mentioned the challenges for the camel as; no proper knowledge/practice about the diseases, especially with the climate change as new health challenges are emerging. He stressed on coordinated efforts to organize a serious forum to have a comprehensive work on the camel health challenges.

Dr. Mubarak Swelem highlighted the importance of the camel as a business opportunity in the kingdom and abroad. He elaborated that investment in the camel can increase the business opportunities and jobs for the people in the camel world. He suggested to find out the chances which can be grabbed for the business opportunities in the camel world. 

Dr. Abdul RAZIQ Kakar (author and key speaker) was stormed by many questions from all the 3 panelists/presenters and the TV anchor person. In following lines I’m sharing the questions along with the answers. 

Q 1. Why a World Camel Day and what were the motives behind this idea?

Answer: No doubt the camel is well known and praised in some cultures but still it is hiding from the eyes of the major part of the world especially the policymakers. The camel is considered as the animal of old world and remote and regions. The policymakers have no clear understanding about the real worth of the incredible camels. In Australia without any support the camel increased in population manifolds. They helped in  revegetation and revitalization of the remote drylands of the inner Australia but the policymakers of the country decided to kill the precious camels. Thousands of camels were killed in last few years. In other camel countries the camels are badly neglected and seldom considered in the research and development policies of the country. The overall understanding and knowledge about the camel is very rare and sporadic. In such a circumstances, I realized to have a specific day in the year’s calendar to speak about the camel and highlight its importance a the global level.

Q 2. When a World Camel Day was started?

Answer: With a small one day seminar in the beautiful city of Quetta (capital of Balochistan province of Pakistan) the foundation of the world camel day was laid. Interestingly, the first event was sponsored by a Saudi professor, Dr. Abdul Salam Abax from Qasseem area. The city of Quetta was selected because of the 50 % of the camels of Pakistan are only placed in Balochistan. Later on, each year many more people joined the WCD from different quarters of the world and now it is being celebrated in different parts of the world even in the regions which are not culturally familiar with the camel world. 

Q 3. Why 22 June was selected for the world camel day?

Answer: June is the hottest month and 22 June is the hotted and longest day of the year. In such a challenging conditions, camel is the only player sustaining its own survival and providing precious food item to the people living in the deserted hot weathers. To praise and admire the importance of the camel, no other day is better than 22nd June.

Q 4. What is your message at the occasion of the World Camel Day?

Answer: Camel is the animal of future, sustaining food security under the challenging weathering conditions. The camel not only secure the food sustenance but also play a pivotal role in the ecosystem management. My message is to please love the camel, care the camel and give the camel a chance to play its role.  

World Camel Day 22 June

World Camel Day is being Celebrate for a Week in Dubai

World Camel Day Forum

A successful World Camel Day Celebration to highlight the important role camels play in food security, desert ecosystems and how their products impact people’s lives

 Dubai, 19 June 2022:  ADCRC, the Arabian Desert Camel Riding Center, hosted its first World Camel Day Forum this Saturday.  The event took place at Mawaheb Community Café and was completely booked out. The attendees were able to listen to some of the biggest names in the scientific camel research space including Dr. Raziq Karkar (author), founder of world camel day and Dr. Ilse Koehler-Rollefson, award winning author, researcher and activist, who had travelled from India. To celebrate the uniqueness, importance and relevance of the camel, ADCRC hosted their first forum in honor of World Camel Day, which is on 22nd of June each year.

Dr Raziq Kakar is delivering lecture

To know who, why and when – World Camel Day was celebrated

To know about the above important questions, please click on the links below;

The Camel Milk is a Natural Pharmacy and the Camel Revitalize the Deserts

Dr. Raziq Karkar (author) captured the audience’s attention with his personal story of how he went from not being able to walk due to arthritis at a young age, to being completely healed through camel milk in the mountains of Pakistan and how this was his inspiration to become a vet and expert on camel milk. His research in Al Ain has revealed how the desert ecosystem benefits from grazing camels, by distributing seeds and ensuring bio diversity in flora and fauna. He encouraged the audience to seek sources of camel milk, directly from farms or through the supermarkets.  Karkar,said: “we are extremely lucky to be in the UAE , which is the only country in the world which has fresh camel milk available on supermarket shelves.”

Discussion about the historical background of the world camel day

 Camels can Make the Fortune of the Pastoralists

Dr. Ilse Koehler-Rollefson, who lives in Rajasthan for over 30 years, has published many books on camel health but also camel related products and their dwindling economy, resulting India’s camel populating plummeting from once 1.5 million to just about 200,000 in a very short span of time, a very contrary situation comparing to the UAE. India used to be the listed as the third biggest camel population and is now faced with difficulties maintaining steady numbers. Dr Koehler-Rollefson outlined that a lack of lobby and cultural hurdles limit the sale of camel milk, despite the importance of maintaining camel pastoralism in Rajasthan, due to its desert climate.Apart from the question of food supply, camels in India were also a key driver for tourism, which poses an additional risk to the fragile local economy, should the numbers decline further.

Camel Milk is an Incredible Natural Medicine for Skin Health

The speakers were also joined by Stevi Lowmass, the CEO and founder of The Camel Soap Factory (TCSF). Lowmass outlined how she incorporates locally produced camel milk in her products to reduce carbon footprint but also because of the noticeable health benefits to the users of her products. TCSF contributed to the EXPO merchandise line and won Natural Beauty Product of the Year Award. Lowmass also spoke about initial apprehension towards camel milk as an ingredient but users have become loyal customers and ambassadors thanks to the superior quality and results.

Camel is an Amazing Companion Animal

The last speaker on the panel was Layla Donders, who travelled more than 2,500 kilometers with a camel caravan. The two journeys lead her from Damascus in Syria to Teheran in Iran and back into the UAE and Oman. She recounted the time of identifying the camels for her journey, back in Syria as a critical time and outlined who the relationship to the animals was the most critical part. She now lives near Muscat in Oman. Her oldest camel is now 28 years old and was part of the long journeys.

Author with a beautiful camel in Fujairah UAE

Camel Movie Night

In addition to the forum and panel discussion, Arabian Desert Camel Riding Center has arranged for a unique movie night at Roxy Cinema City Walk on Tuesday (21st June) as well as an event at the camel riding center, displaying different traditional camel riding gear and offering a camel milk tasting in the evening.

Arabian Desert Camel Riding on 22nd June

The Arabian Desert Camel Riding Center is the first licensed center to train camel jockeys for races, with an official training license issued by Dubai Camel Racing Club. The center was founded by Obaid bin Subaih al Falasi and Linda Krockenberger in January 2021. The centre will arrange a camel riding on 22nd June, the real camel day.

For further details, please click on the link below.

World Camel Day 22 June

What is World Camel Day?

World Camel Day honors the incredible camel and its importance in many spheres of life. In order to highlight the importance of the camel at the global level, Dr. Abdul Raziq Kakar founded World Camel Day. Every year since its launch in 2009, World Camel Day has been celebrated on 22 June. Camel habitats observe World Camel Day on this date because it is the longest and hottest day of the year. 

A herd of lactating camels grazing on cactus plants in Jigjiga
A herd of lactating camels grazing on cactus plants in Jigjiga

Why a World Camel Day?

Camel is a multipurpose, unique, and very useful animal for livelihood earning in the challenging climatic conditions of its habitats. Because of the towering power of adaptation, the camel ensures food security in conditions where other types of livestock can hardly survive. Camel is an efficient biological machine, converting poor roughages (shrubs, bushes, and dry foliage) into precious milk while consuming a lesser amount of water/kg milk production. The camel extracts water from its excreta and produces an almost dry and hard manure ball, as well as an extract from the urine via its incredible kidneys, producing urine thicker than syrup. Camel produces milk with medicinal and functional properties, rightly called a natural pharmacy. For further details please read the below article.

Celebrating World Camel Day and how it helps in advocating camel at the global level

Who is the author of the World Camel Day?

Dr. Raziq Kakar is a doctorate in animal science, with a special emphasis on dromedary as a potential dairy animal, He has been working with the camels for the last 22 years. He gained practical experience with camels, like a camel dairy professional, both by training and experience. Since 2014, Dr. Raziq Kakar is solely working with a camel dairying entity (Alain Farms for Livestock Production) which is the world’s first commercial camel dairy, Alain Abu Dhabi UAE. In my philosophy, the camel is a magical biological model coping with the warming planet scenario while producing health-promising milk and meat in challenging circumstances.

Founder of the World Camel Day
World Camel Day 22 June

Why We Celebrate a World Camel Day?

The Longest and Hottest Day is a Camel Day (22 June)

Camel is a multipurpose, unique, and very useful animal for livelihood earning in the challenging climatic conditions of its habitats. Because of the towering power of adaptation, the camel ensures food security in conditions where other types of livestock can hardly survive. Camel is an efficient biological machine, converting poor roughages (shrubs, bushes, and dry foliage) into precious milk while consuming a lesser amount of water/kg milk production. The camel extracts water from its excreta and produces an almost dry and hard manure ball, as well as an extract from the urine via its incredible kidneys, producing urine thicker than syrup. Camel produces milk with medicinal and functional properties, rightly called a natural pharmacy. Camel also provides fiber, hides, recreation, sports opportunities, transportation & accessibility to millions of people around the world. The camel plays an incredible role in dispersing seeds, enriching soil fertility, recycling the woody roughages into manure (food for the soil microbiome), and overall ecosystem management. 

We celebrate World Camel Day to highlight the camel’s importance and usefulness among researchers, policymakers, and other stakeholders

Besides the above-discussed potential and opportunities, the camel is still hiding from the eyes of the policymakers. Camel is seldom considered in R&D policies, both locally and globally which is very unfortunate. Camel4Life International is an influential forum advocating camel at the global level, with a workforce of caramelized (camel scientists, nomads/pastoralists, farmers, students, lovers) from all over the world. 

We celebrate World Camel Day each year on the 22nd of June to highlight the importance of an incredible camel and aware/educate the masses about the role of the camel in food security, climate change adaptation, culture, and ecosystem management. Each year, this day is celebrated in many parts of the world and the interest is increasing with the passing of each camel day. Dr. Abdul Raziq Kakar (author) is the founder and author of the world camel day.

Founder of World Camel Day

The interest of the people beyond the camels’ habitats is also increasing and the demand for camel milk is increasing with the passage of time. More and more people are coming into the camel milk and sports business. We can see camel dairies in Western countries and regions like USE, Australia, and the European Union. Also, now we have camel racing in France and Australia, and soon more countries will enter the ring. The celebration of camel day is a success story and great support for the camel development.

A camel woman is milking a camel in the Cholistan desert of Pakistan.
A camel woman is milking a camel in the Cholistan desert of Pakistan.
World Camel Day 22 June

Who is the founder of World Camel Day?

World Camel Day is Celebrated on 22nd June each Year in Different Regions of the World. Dr. Abdul Raziq Kakar is the founder of the world camel day.

Dr. Raziq Kakar is a doctorate in animal science, with a special emphasis on dromedary as a potential dairy animal, He has been working with the camels for the last 22 years. He gained practical experience with camels, like a camel dairy professional, both by training and experience. Since 2014, Dr. Raziq Kakar is solely working with a camel dairying entity (Alain Farms for Livestock Production) which is the world’s first commercial camel dairy, Alain Abu Dhabi UAE. In my philosophy, the camel is a magical biological model coping with the warming planet scenario while producing health-promising milk and meat in challenging circumstances.

History of the World Camel Day

While compiling my Ph.D. work, and reading piles of books and scientific articles about the camels and camel-related aspects, I realized that there must be a special day to celebrate World Camel Day. This day will be helpful in advocating and promoting camels and spreading awareness among the masses about the importance of the incredible camel in livelihood and food security.

Why do we choose the date of 22nd June?

In its original habitat, 21 and 22 June are the longest and hottest days of the year, in the northern hemisphere of the globe. Camel sustains its abilities of production in such harsh and hostile environments and adapts to the soaring heat and long thirsty days. For further reading about the history of World Camel Day, please go to the link below.

World Camel Day

How did World Camel Day start?

From 2009 to 2012 WCD was celebrated in the province of Balochistan (the important habitat of camels, 50% share of Pakistan’s 1 million population of camels). Slowly and gradually, we earned support at the country as well as global level.

World Camel Day Poster

In 2013, we launched the WCD Facebook page and received appreciation and support from all over the world. The next year, in 2014 WCD started celebrating in the different corners of the globe. The same year, LMUAF under the supervision of Dr. Muhammad Younas launched the Dachi camel milk brand in the university and invited the famous camel lady Ilse Kohler Rollefson to attend the WCD 2014 and inaugurate the Dachi milk. For more details, please click on the link;

The history of WCD

Way Forward

World Camel Day is appealing to cameleers from all quarters of the world. Each year new ideas are being floated under the banner of World Camel Day. The people are now better aware of the importance of camel than before. We have more knowledge about the different aspects of the camels. There is an international camel advocacy forum (think tank) with the name of Camel4Life International, advocating camels at the global level. Policymakers at all levels are now convinced of the importance of camels in livelihood earning, food security, and ecosystem services of the camel.

Raigi camel of Kakar Khurasan
World Camel Day 22 June

The World Camel Day – 22 June

The Challenging Climatic Conditions

As the globe is getting warmer and warmer, the only reliable and trustworthy source of food left are the plants & animals’ genetic resources that are highly adaptable to the climate challenges. Adaptation is the guarantee for a sustainable and uninterrupted food supply despite all challenges. Camel is unique among all the adapted animal genetic resources for food and agriculture. We can say that the camel is a unique gift of nature for desert dwellers. As the camel is highly tolerant, adapted, efficient, and sustainable, ensuring food security in the arid regions of the world.

Brela camel of Pat (Sibi plainlands) of Balochistan Pakistan.

Climate change affects water sources (scarcity and salinity), feed (scarcity and quality), and the soaring heat – The camel is the solution for all the above-mentioned challenges.

The camel is hiding from the eyes of policymakers

Despite some attention in the Anthropocene, the unique creature (camel) is either ignored or undermined by different quarters, especially the policymakers.

World Camel Day

The author, therefore, proposed a day (22nd June) to think and aware the masses about this precious animal and advocate for the camel to get a proper place again. Our camel advocacy forum CAMEL4LIFE INTERNATIONAL is advocating camels at all available forums, especially for its’ incredible milk, which is considered a natural pharmacy.

Raigi camel of Kakar Khurasan Zhob region of Pakistan

Thanks to all my camelists friends who supported my camel cause. I’m happy to see the progress of our forum, many quarters have realized the importance of the camel as a food security animal under the challenging climatic conditions.

Camel feeding

Zalam – Salt deficiency in camels

Zalam – The salt defeciency

In continuation of our discussion about the salt requirements and deficiency in camels; The salt deficiency in camels is called Zalam (cruelty) among the Pashtun and Balochi camel pastoralists. They consider this deficiency as a punishment and cruelty towards the camels. Salt is one of the important welfare issues of the camels. I interviewed many camel keepers in Balochistan and other parts of the country, salt is one of the main requirements of the camels. They think the salt is the camel’s sword, fighting the challenging weather, thirst, and hunger. If you leave the camel without a weapon (salts) to fight against the long hotter days, and scarcity of feed and water, it is cruelty or Zalam.

Camel salt requirements per day

According to the camel keepers, the requirements of the salt are based on some factors like; age, stage (milking, working, pregnancy, etc.), food, water, and season of the year. In most cases, the pastoralist has specified certain grazing land based on the salt bushes availability. They graze their camels once a week in the salt bushes inhibited grazing lands. Along with this, they offer salt of 500 g/mature camel in a week. If enough salt bushes are not available, then the requirements per week are double 1 kg/camel/week.

What type of salt should be offered to the camels?

The granular salt is the best suited for the camels as camel use their lips as prehensile organs. Camels are not like cows (lick) so the salt as a block is not good for camels; it can harm the camels’ teeth. Also, the powder form is not recommended as it gets moist during humid nights. The top priority should be grazing on salt bushes with an additional amount of 1 kg/week per camel.

Some images are provided in the article below by Maurizio Dioli

Debate and the way forward

I always love to know the diversity of opinions about a phenomenon. I put some questions for further discussion and looking forward to hearing from different camelists of the world. Here are some questions;

  • Camel requirements of salts per day, What is the exact quantity required?
  • Do the camels drink brackish/salty water?
  • Do the camels drink seawater?
  • The impact of salts on the physiological aspects of camel
  • Can we regulate the milk taste with the on-off camel salts
Camel Urine

Debate – Is camel urine worth a therapeutic value?

The camel4life international is a group of camelists (scientists, academics, farmers, activists, businessmen, student, farmers, etc) advocating camel aspects, especially the milk. We are a major think tank of the camelids’ world. Time to time we have serious and hot debates as the salts requirements and tolerance, camel milk and its therapeutic potential, camel role in ecosystem management, etc. But now we have rather very serious, hot and complicated issue, the CAMEL URINE.

Is Camel Urine has Therapeutic Value?

This debate triggered with a message from Christina Adams sharing the link of an article; “New report on camelid-derived nanobodies being used to attach to skeletal and heart tissue, with their small size as an advantage. This may be beneficial in anesthesia and maybe other drug delivery mechanisms. I’ve written about the camelid advantage before and have discussed it with a few scientists but it was such a niche even for them. So this proof of concept may help shift the dialogue and investigation forward. Let’s hope”.

Then Fatima Ramadan from Egypt responded as “This is excellent, there is research we are working on to extract nanoparticles from camel urine to treat cancer..on 🐀

Then in less than a minute, there were many responses, yes and no. Some were arguing the cultural, the other religious, and research value of the camel urine. The debate turned hot and hotter. In the ensuing bullet paragraphs, I’m sharing the responses;

  • Dr. Pierre from France; “In fact they dis not found anything….it is well known that antibodies of camlids look like Fab fragment with quite no constant part of igG. That make this antibodies very useful tools to target tumor marker when associates with chimiotherapic substances… It is not really nanoparticules but it IS classical to call them nanobodies. Normally, without pathology such antibodies do not pass the blood kidney barrier and have not to be present in urine in high concentrations”
  • Kehkashan Qureshi India; saudi Arabia Dr.khorshid fatan working on camel urine and Camel milk for treating cancer.there is a story i hv heard person suffering from intestinal cancer after surgery, again got intestinal cancer damaged the affected area but after following Camel milk n urine therapy he is fully recovered..but it must have’s still not recognised…
  • Ilse K.R from Rajasthan India; At Camel Charisma (, we get frequent requests for camel urine which we send out for free with milk orders. Mostly, they are from Muslim cancer patients, and there has been at least one spectacular recovery. Documentation will be out shortly
  • Maurizio Italy; Anecdotal evidence is not scientific evidence
  • Ilse reply; Anecdotal evidence eventually adds up. There is also scientific evidence of camel urine impacting cancer cell cultures. She shared this link;
  • Wanyama from Kenya; Quinine was once anecdotal
  • Maurizio again; Camel urine seems certainly a good way to get Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever .
  • Me; Many people believe camel urine is a therapy. The science has to prove. There are some findings and published. Dr Musab from Kuwait was once in group and tried to share his findings and opinion.
  • Dr. Afaf, PROF at UAEU; There might be something good in the urine at the same time, urine can be toxic and a source of contamination. Urine is a product of liver metabolism of feed components to make them more water-soluble. This way bioactivity can be increased. So, because urine is “dirty” such onservations should not be dismissed but further researched
  • Kehkashan Qureshi India; Yes definitely it is mentioned in Hadith.But it is one Of the treatment .not the only treatment for cancer. When you go through this statement there was some people who came to Madina and fell sick tried every option for the treatment but the environment of Madina not suited to them then we finally they tried camel milk and urine at certain doses for certain days till they fully recovered. Mostly whenever we heard stories they tried camel milk and urine only when there is no hope of treatment left so they here lot’s of factors matter.Maybe Arabian Camel is different by genetic or maybe they’re healthy camel.A scientist or researcher or an expert can better’explain…
  • Dr. Pierre-guy Marrint France; Ok ok please stop this discussion about urine effect mixing cases reports, religions belief and scientific observations. We have heard and red and undestood the different point of views. Urine is, as previously wrote by another coleague a way to purify organismes of toxines or too concentrated compounds. By evidence urine would have different composition according to food quality and quantity and water disponibility. And could also drain toxines, bacteria or viruses and have at least as much beneficial than dangerous effects. We need works, tempting to identifiate bioactive compounds but it is a no end work according to breeds, foods and water quality…. Thé only proof IS to isolate and qualify these compounds after testing on representative models… Do not forgot also the Amazing power of autosuggestion well known on placebo effects. Périple close to death could have spontaneous recovery only due to the Hope to have found the panacea…
  • Tumal, Gabarra camel community Kenya; I come from camel keeping Community- Gabbra. Milk/ blood are medicinal to our culture. I was camel milk fed up to age 15. I never heard in Gabbra History of camel Pastoralist taking “Urine” as medicine. It was in 1989, i a came across a visitor from town demanding camel Urine from expectant one, mixed it with milk & drunk. So let it be proved scientifically & it should be Indigenous Knowledge Practice+ Scientific= could be acceptable.

The topic is open for discussion

I wrote this post, composed of the debate. I invite you to take part in discussion. I wish we give our feedback and inputs. We should not go in personal hot argument but discuss with the scientific findings, traditional knowledge, cultural and religious philosophies. Please give your feedback in the comments box below.

World Camel Day 22 June

World Camel Day – How it started?

Camel and my Childhood

Since my childhood, I have been keenly looking at the camel herds of the Afghan Kuchis. They have been passing near our village in Northeastern Balochistan Pakistan. Whenever a salt seller camel to our village, smelling salts from the salt wells of Kakar Khurasan, the beast was always a camel. During my childhood, I was used to making camel toys with clay. As a curious kid, I always asked many many questions about the camel. So, my interest in camels started in my childhood.

Camel milk – Natural pharmacy for my sickness

A decade earlier severe arthritis (Rheumatoid Arthritis) almost killed me and I was unable to move from the bed. An old wise man advised me to move to a camel breeding area and take fresh camel milk regularly. I started my new life while obeying the advice and reached the Suleiman Mountainous Region of Balochistan (the camel heartland). I lived with the camel people, enjoyed their company, learned a lot about camels, and took camel milk regularly. I established a viewpoint that camel milk is a natural pharmacy not just white fluid milk. I recovered soon and started climbing the mountains, the joyful feeling of my life.

Ph.D. in Camel (2005-2009)

While compiling my Ph.D. work, and reading piles of books and articles about the camels and camel-related aspects, I realized that there must be someday, mentioning and realizing the importance of the incredible camel.

The Conception of World Camel Day – First world camel day 2009

In 2009, I conceptualized the idea of a world camel day (WCD) to aware people of the importance of camel as a food security agent in climate change scenarios. From 2009 to 2012, WCD was celebrated only in the province of Balochistan (the important habitat of camels, 50% share of Pakistan’s 1 million population of camels). Slowly and gradually, we earned support at the country as well as global level.

Why do we choose the date of 22nd June?

In its original habitat, 21 June is the longest and hottest day of the year, in the northern hemisphere of the globe. Camel sustains its abilities of production in such harsh and hostile environments and adapts to the soaring heat and long thirsty days. We should have chosen the 21st of June as world camel day but it is specified for the world father day. So, we decided to skip 21 and selected 22nd June as the world camel day. The difference in day length is only 2 seconds between the 21st and 22nd of June. For further reading about the history of the world camel day, please go to the link below.

International colleagues’ support

Here, I must praise the role of the very important camel colleagues like Ilse Kohler Rollefson, Prof. Dr. Yagil (the late), Dr. Abdul Salam Abax (KSA), and many other colleagues. It is very hard to mention the names of all the people who supported me in this noble cause.

Recent development

In recent years, we have gained much development, there is an increasing awareness about the camel and the world camel day is celebrated in many quarters of the world. Last year (2021) there was a Twitter trend ‘worldcamelday‘. With the support of the International Camel Organization, an international seminar was held with the collaboration of UNESCO which was live-streamed on Twitter, Youtube, and other media outlets.

CaM yogurt Camel milk products

Believe it or not: Typical yogurt made from 100% camel’s milk

Camel’s milk (CaM) has a similar composition to that of bovine milk and sequence homology between milk proteins for both kinds of milk is in the range of 60–90%. The relative composition, distribution, and molecular profile of milk constituents are different. In fact, β-lactoglobulin (potential allergen for infants), whey proteins, is absent in CaM. Due to its higher amounts of Beta-casein (β-CN), CAM is similar to human milk and also has better digestibility and lower infants’ allergic incidence, compared to bovine milk. In fact, β-CN is more degradable by peptic enzymes than α-CN

The power of camel milk

It is well documented that CaM is technically more difficult to process into fermented products (such as yogurt) than its counterparts from other livestock. In this regard, appreciable research works have been dealt with many trials in making yogurt from CaM. The manufacturing of yogurt from CaM, however, ended in a texture problem where the final product was not a typical yogurt texture and had an unpleasant taste. Furthermore, the product’s viscosity did not change during the gelling process compared to the milk of other dairy species. In other words, the final product is described at best as a drinking yogurt. In fact, such technical difficulties clearly explain the lack of industrial production of CaM yogurt at the present time.

Beauty of the camels
The Beauty of the camels

Recently, yogurt could not be made from CaM unless the dromedary milk samples were fortified with combinations of cow’s milk constituents (micellar casein, whey protein, and sodium caseinate) in the presence of microbial transglutaminase. Others added commercial chymosin along with gelatin, starch, and skim milk powder. However, the final product deviated from standards of identity for yogurt traditionally made by acidification (no cheese coagulant) by selected lactic acid bacterial starters.  Instead, the resulted CaM fermented product could be best described as a yogurt-like one.

One of the world’s best camel breeds – KHAWAR Camel of Oman. The main habitat is the Dhofar region.

It is noteworthy to mention that our developed CaM yogurt could be manufactured, at the industrial scale, as that from cow’s milk will not add up extra costs in its production. CaM yogurt was made from 100% CaM (pasteurized) with no need for fortification with caseins, skim milk powder, whey proteins, or treatment with commercial enzymes (chymosin/ transglutaminase) or gelatin.

Raigi camel breed of Kakar Khurasan

Most important, the developed CaM yogurt meets the standard of identity outlined by the Codex Alimentarius of the FAO/WHO for yogurt. It is also an added-value product from CaM with more nutritious and functional values. The CaM yogurt, developed in our laboratory, could be considered a safer alternative for those allergic to cow’s milk. It is typical yogurt made from CaM which is spoonable (see photo below) with longer shelf life without added preservatives. If you are interested in the industrial production and marketing of CAM yogurt, please contact me at the below e-mail address.

Finally, I would like to thank Dr. ABDUL RAZIQ Kakar for giving me this opportunity in posting my article in CAMEL4All.

Prof. N. Al-zoreky

King Faisal University

Saudi (

Camel Milk and Natural Health Camel Milk for Health

My Hypothesis proved correct – CaM is potential functional food for diabetes control

I always claimed of the functional characters of camel milk

Though I did not conduct large-scale trials. I did many interviews, communicated with the camel keepers, having been with the camels for the last 20 years, regular consumer of camel milk, and interviewed camel milk consumers made my hypothesis more and stronger that camel milk is a potential therapy for the complexity of diabetes and other issues but here I would focus on diabetes. I practically conducted small level family and friends trials with the camel milk and was always convinced of the magical power of this superfood.

A meta-analysis of many studies concluded ‘CaM is effective’

To conclude, CM could be used as effective adjuvant therapy for patients with both types of diabetes, effectively reducing the short-term and long-term hyperglycemia parameters, i.e., fasting blood glucose and HbA1c, respectively. Owing to the bioactive peptide and hormone-like proteins involved in CM, the insulin dose required for patients with diabetes could be reduced by the regular long-duration administration of CM. Long-term, more controlled clinical trials are warranted to overcome the raised limitations presented in the high heterogeneity of the analyzed articles and to provide evidence of a more robust conclusive effect on the impact of CM intake of patients with diabetes. For further details, one can read the article in detail.

CaM Product and Cheese CaM yogurt

It is now easy to make yogurt from camel milk

Making yogurt from camel milk was always challenging

It was always challenging making yogurt from camel milk. People from different parts of the world were continuously asking such questions, Why it is challenging to make yogurt of camel milk? My answer was always the same ‘Better take the camel milk as fresh and unprocessed’ I take fresh camel milk on a daily basis and it is practically keeping me away from chemical drugs and doctors. In different time periods and in different parts of the world, somehow it was managed to make yogurt of camel milk but always a bit thinner and watery.

What does the new study find?

The study was led by Selda, a member of Camel4life International

A new study conducted in Turkey found an enzyme (biological agent), that makes better yogurt with camel milk. The study was published with the title ‘The influence of microbial transglutaminase on the camel milk yogurt’ I received this good news in the group communication hub of the Camel4life international group which is advocating camel milk at the global level. The study revealed that the sample (yogurt) with the best sensory properties was prepared with 6 U/g microbial transglutaminases (mTGase) and micellar casein. The study concluded that the mTGase improved the gel structure and sensory properties of camel milk yogurt. For your interest and further details, I’m hereby sharing the link to the study.

In 2020, I made CM yogurt at home

Making yogurt from camel milk is a challenge and so is the separation of butterfat. After a lengthy effort and trying different modules, ultimately we succeeded in making yogurt, separated butter, and got whey (Shlombey, شلومبئ). During this work, I successfully separated/produced butter from camel milk. The link is available here.

Camel Farm & Milk Production Ecological camel farming

A desert environment at farm for the camels

We have the world’s lucky camels

We provide the desert environment to our camels at the farm. Our camels’ houses are as clean as the desert to provide a comfortable environment for the milking camels and harvest quality milk. We provide a neat and clean environment for our camels. We replace old sand with a fresh one. We clean/filter the bedding sand every day with the beach cleaning machine. The machine filter the sand, collect the manure balls and keep the house very clean. We provide very spacy housing to our camels, so they remain relaxed and happy to provide healthy milk. Their calves/good remain with their moms for the whole milking period. We weaned the calves at the age of 8 months. We provide full opportunity to the calves to stay with their moms and enjoy moms’ company and love.

Cleaning the camel houses with the beach cleaning machine in Alain UAE

1st ICO International Forum of Camel Research Centers

A webinar with the title as; 1st ICO International Forum of Camel Research Centers was held on 27th January 2022 in the King Faisal University Riyadh with the collaboration of the International Camel Organization (ICO)

Recommendations of the Webinar

  1. Revegetate the deserts using recent technologies to provide a raring area for Camels
  2. Document the available knowledge about Camels and translate it to multi-languages
  3. Support camel breeders/owners to produce efficient milk and meat for sustainable food security
  4. Innovating new products from camel and marketing it internationally based on scientific research
  5. ncourage researchers/postgraduate students to perform scientific research in camel sciences
  6. Support research related to the genetic improvement of camels
  7. Support research related to the development of artificial insemination in camels
  8. Support research related to molecular diagnostic of camel disease
  9. Encourage the public and private sectors to produce medicines and vaccines for camel diseases
  10. Create standard feeding/nutrition programs based on Camel breed/purpose with consideration of age, weight, and other physical factors
  11. Recruiting and training human resources working in sectors related to camel welfare
  12. Full support (financially and others) to the infrastructure, running/operating costs, and research of research institutes concerning Camels. Especially/Priority the Camel Research Institutes
  13. Hold an annual international meeting of Camel Research Centers and faculties of veterinary sciences
  14. Participating countries become members of the International Center for Camel Research in the ICO
  15. Launch an annual award for the best research centre
  16. Establish a periodic scientific journal on cultural and scientific camel sciences
  17. Establish international camel expertise and scientists’ platform to exchange experience and knowledge about the camel

In December 2021, the first camel conference under the patronage of ICO was also held in Rimah – Riyadh KSA, the recommendations were shared with you. You can reach the recommendations with the link below. You can reach the photostory of the conference here;

The recommendations and other relevant material can be found in the links below.

Camel and Nature Connection Camel Confeernce

Recommendations for the first King Abdul Aziz camel conference -Riyadh Kingdome of Saudi Arabia

Recommendations and further steps need to be taken – My personal recomendations

My conclusive remarks at the end of my talk as a first speaker of the conference.

  • Declaring the camel milk as a heritage food: The governments should buy (camel milk) with subsidized rates and can provide to the schools children (heritage/slow food), hospitals (natural health), and police/army personal (stronger security). The countries like Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, and other gulf states can easily support such initiatives
  • Channellisation (milk) through cameleers cooperatives: The milk of the camel can assure an additional income for a sustainable camel production. This way the camel milk business will not go in the hands of few giant companies but with the cameleers (the major share).
  • Giving a chance to the female cameleers: The female needs to give a chance in the camel milk business. I have a very scientific module for involving females in camel dairying to enhance their income, promote family wellness and the health of mother and kids
  • Utmost need to support the camel keeper: The camel farmers/beduins need support as they are facing climate change catastrophe, revegetation of the deserts with the help of new technologies can provide feeding opportunities to the camels in future, the native flora revegetation will work as two prong solution – food for livestock and provision shelter to the wildlife
  • The camel helps the drylands: The desert is a living phenomenon and its life is strongle connected with the grazing practice (conversion of woody vegetation into manure), especially the camels. The desert without camels will loose its fertility and the carbon (sunk in rangelands) will be release into the atmosphere which is an irreversable loss to the environment 
  • Formation of a multistakeholders platefarm: ICO can take more active part in coordinating of the multistakeholders platform on camel production, milk, meat etc
  • A conference on camel – once in 2 years: I recomend International Camel Organization (ICO) to arrange a conference (one in 2 years) and ensure the participation of the international camel scientists, production professionals, representatives of the camels organization (from Asia and Africa) to ensure a consistant camel policy at global level
  • Camel mapping as a pilot project – start from KSA and manipulate in other parts of the world. This will help in a wide primary data about the camels, size of herd, male:female, herd composition, milk production, consumption of camel products, prospects of camel keepers etc
  • Knowledge management, we have information about the camels but knowledge is very sporadic. Documentation of the available traditional knowledge with the support of universities as well as translation of the camel science in Arabic will be a great step
Receiving shield from Dr. Mubarak Alsuelem
Ecological camel farming

Ecological Camel Farming – Supporting Aravana Camel Breeders in Turkmen Region of Iran

Reported by my friend Kianzad from Camel Center Iran

The native flora, especially the resilient bush verities are re-cultivated and protected to provide healthy and sufficient feed resources to the precious camel breed Aravana in Turkemen region of the country. Here is a brief example of the Salsola bush.

Salsola or Saltwart bush is highly adapted to the native ecosystem and is highly liked by the camels. In native language (Turkmen), the camel breeders call it the ‘sparrow Eye’. Being rich in nutrients, this bush has very good effect on milk, i.e. viscosity of milk based on fat & protein contents. The Turkmen camel breeders in Gonbad district (centre of Turkmen area, Iran ) use it as main part of camel ration.The region is home to the precious camel breed ‘ARAVANA’ which is a promising dairy type.

Torkumani camel breeders, raising in Gonbad and Gorlestan province in North East of Iran and the adjoining regions of Turkmenistan are herding the Aravana breed. This camel is widely used by the Turkmen nomadic people of the region. Aravana breed is specialized milk breed with short age at first calving and shorter calving interval compared to other breeds. The nomads make the specialized sour milk of this breed, called as CHAL.

Aravana camel breed of Turkmen camel keepers have diversities in types. Here are some pictures.

Ministry of jihad agriculture support the cultivation and extension of the native but resilient plants which are highly liked by the camels. The ministry with the collaboration of rangeland, watershed management, and deputy of agronomy and land grant management organization has launched a unique project of its kind ‘ECOLOGICAL CAMEL FARMING. In this plan, they are using very extensive land (with salt contents) which is unable for arable farming. In the project they used mechanization for cultivation and protection with some level of irrigation to support the early growing of the halophyte bushes like Salsola and Alhagi camelarum which is also known as camel thorn. I shall share some pictures provided by Kianzad.


The best method is the ecological farming ‘farming with zero harm to the nature’. This is the only way for a safe and zero emission farming system, especially for the camels with the native flora. Both the camels and the native bushes have the highest tolerance level and very adapted to the harsh and hostile ecosystems. Under the guidance of the COP26, we have to go for the adaptation and rely on the genetic resources which are highly resilient and sustainable with very low input system.

Camel Milk for Health General about camel

Do the Age, Parity, and type of Milking Affect the Camel Udder?

Practically, I have been working with the milking camels for the last 15 years almost, from research work to commercial camel dairying. I have a very strong and concrete experience that age and parity (number of calving/s) have a very negative impact on the camel udder. The advancement in age, total hours of milking (time of milking), and the number of parities resulting in the loosening of the ligaments of the udder, enlargement of the teats’ orifices, and elongating of the teats. All the above-mentioned conditions result in vulnerability to mastitis. I shall share some pictures, mostly shot of the udders of highly harvested/milked camels.

A Recent Study with Contrast Results from Iraq

I reviewed some studies about the camels’ mastitis recently (though not fresh studies) from Africa and now Iraq which revealed that the age, parity, and the number of milking has no impact on camels’ udder health. I will certainly not agree with such findings.

I noticed that in the studies publish with such results, the number of camels was less than 20 which is a very small sample. I’m sure if there will be a huge data with many camels and for many years, the results will be different.

Camel Conference The Camel and Climate Change World Camel Day 22 June



S e p t 3 0 t h – O c t I s t , 2 0 2 1

A World Camel Day Series

Climate change is a bitter reality and the globe is facing the consequences of this phenomenon. It is imperative to strive for food security in this scenario. The camel is an amazing species along with extraordinary resilience in changing environments.  There is a  need to explore and share the potential and future of this creature under climate change circumstances.  The Department of Livestock Production and Management is taking one step forward to organize the International Camel Conference (Virtual) in collaboration with Camel Association of Pakistan to take advantage of exploring the potential of this creature through cooperation, hard work, research & development to open new doors in the multi-value research aspect.  We welcome the dignitaries,    researchers,    and scholars to this event.


  • Prof. (R) Dr. Muhammad Younas, Ex Dean FAH, Founding President, Camel Association of Pakistan (CAP)
  • Prof. Dr. Zafar Iqbal Qureshi, Deptt. of Theriogenology, Uni. of Agriculture, Faisalabad.
  • Nisar Ahmad Wani, Scientific Director Reproductive Biotechnology Centre, Nad Al Sheba, Dubai
  • Dr Abdul Raziq Kakar, Technical Operations Manager, Al-Ain Farms, Abu Dhabi, International. Camel Dairying Specialist & Consultant
  • Prof. Dr Taherah Mohammadabadi, Agricultural Sciences, and Natural Resources, University of Khuzestan, Iran
  • Prof. Dr. Tarun Kumar Gahlot, Rajasthan Agri. Uni., Bikaner, India. Editor: J. Camel Practice and researcher.
  • Pauline Gitonga, Dryland Animal Health Consultant, ASAL Extension Ltd. Kenya
  • Mr. Douglas Baum, Owner at The US Army Camel Experiment
  • Mr. Jama Warsame, Founder of White Gold Camel Milk Co., Kenya
  • Dr. Asim Faraz, General Secretary CAP Assistant Prof., Bahauddin Zakariya Uni., Multan

World Camel Day, 22nd June

June; the harshest month of summer with the longest and hottest days of the year (21 June) in the northern hemisphere, the cradle of camel (old world) domestication. The world is celebrating WCD since 2009 to aware the public and policymakers of the incredible role of the camel.

Abstracts Are Still Accepted

  • Short abstract (200-250 words)
  • Extended abstracts (2000-2500) words.
  • Registration: 14th August 2021
  • Abstract submission deadline: 22th Sept. 2021
  • Accepted Abstract Notification: 25th Sept. 2021
  • Talk submission deadline: 27th Sept. 2021

For more Information and Registration; please go to the link for registration.

Camel and Nature Connection Camel in European Countries

Camel can be a Hope for the Regions under Sever Climate Change Calamities

Camel is one of the best animal models adapted to the harshest climatic conditions of the earth. Camel is engineered with super genes, evolved in tune with the climate change in the hundreds of years evolution history.

Seeing the tragic scenes on TV about the wildfires and the soaring heat in the regions not used to such challenges, the scientists are now thinking of adaptation strategies as the mitigation is complicated, expensive, and unsustainable.

As an animal scientist, working with the camels for the last 20 years, I’m very confident to say that one of the best adaptation strategies would be giving the camel a chance to perform as a food security animal. Though it is not easy and simple it is a reliable and sustainable model to ensure food security under the climate change challenge. Camel can be introduced in the forests (organic nutrients) which can consume the roughages which are otherwise causing hazardous fires. Camel and other animals especially goats can cut the link between the plants on the ground and the shoots of the trees, hence minimizing the risk of wildfires.

Camel with the ability to produce milk and meat in a very low or zero input system can provide amazing food ingredients, especially milk which is attracting thousands of new consumers because of its health-friendly nature. Camel milk is not only good food but helps in health challenges, especially the challenges which are posed because of lifestyle like diabetes.

I have been writing on the camelization of the camels in the new habitats which are different and far away from their original habitats of Asia and Africa. The new habitats like Australia, part of the USA, and Europe are the new habitats and the people over there are witnessed the miraculous attributes of camels under the challenges of climate change. Also, many reports are circulating about the health admiring role of the camel milk as we can read on the very active group wall posts on Facebook with the name of ‘HEALING WITH THE CAMEL MILK’

European scientists are convinced with the attributes of the camel and the renowned camel scientist Dr. bernard Faye is leading a camel milk project with the name of CAMELMILK (PRIMA project n° 1832) to materialize camel milk availability at the European level. There are very promising results coming out of the project. I can see the beautiful pictures of the milking camels and the cheese-making out of the camel milk.

In Europe, the camels are mainly housed in 3 countries, i.e. Germany, France, and Spain. Clearer information is only available for the Canary Island with at least 1,300 camels (the data is a bit controversial and maybe more than these figures). The average per camel milk yield (3 to 4 kg/day) is lower than in Africa, Arabia, and Central and South Asia. The prices of camel milk range from 8 to 10 Euro per kg camel milk. People are taking interest in camel milk and the consumers are increasing with a speedy incline curve. The main reasons for the camel milk likeness in Europe are;

  • People with allergies prefer camel milk as the camel milk is free of cow allergy proteins and intolerant lactose.
  • The health conscious people, especially the new generation
  • The people looking for the pharmacological affects of the camel milk and consider camel milk as natural pharmacy
  • The people who prioritize environment friendly production system

Challenges and the Way Forward

One of the most important challenges for the camel keepers in the new habitats is the lower yield of milk. The ancestors of those camels were imported into the regions for work. They are massive animals and comparatively low yielders in milk. In some regions, especially Europe they are somehow crossbred with the Bactrian camels which are very low yielder but producing thicker milk than the Arabian camels.

It will be a wise suggestion to make a camel dairy consortium at a global level with the support of the relevant countries’ governments to centralize the best camel genes for more and sustainable milk production. It is a bit tricky but not impossible. This will be a milestone in the journey of the camel dairying which will put longer impacts on the food systems and environments in the regions.